We use the words this, that, these and those to indicate, to point to, or to refer to things that are usually in our immediate surroundings.
This and that
Are used for singular items such as 'this book' or 'that box of chocolates'.
These and those
Are used for plural items such as 'these apples' or 'those cupcakes'.
As well as the number of items, the distance of the speaker from the item also helps us to decide which word to use.
This and these
Are used when the item is close by to you as the speaker.
You are holding a book in your hand "This is my favourite book."
You are standing next to the fruit bowl "These apples need to be eaten soon."
That and those
Are used when the item is farther away from you as the speaker.
You are sitting on the sofa in your living room and there is a box of chocolates in the kitchen. You ask someone in the kitchen "Can you bring me that box of chocolates."
Someone is baking in the kitchen, and you are sitting on the sofa in your living room.
You say, "I can smell those cupcakes from here!"
This, that, these and those as pronouns
These words can be used to refer to things or ideas that we have already mentioned. For example:
"Cook the vegetables until they are soft, then stir this mixture through the cooked pasta."
"The movie is on quite late, so I think we should eat first. Do you agree with that?"
You are eating some delicious chocolates and you ask your friend "Where did you buy these?"
Your friend has eaten a whole tub of popcorn before the movie starts.
You say, "I can't believe you ate all of those!"
Did you see these note? I left it for you in the kitchen.
2. Have you seen that new comedy show on Netflix?
3. Somebody needs to eat this bananas in the fruit bowl. They are going off.
4. Did you see those pink boots in the shop window?
5. That cakes in the bakery window look very tasty!
6. This pizza is delicious!
7. This photos you took on holiday are beautiful!